by Glen Swartwout
Twice, when presenting at the Cancer Control Society Convention in Pasadena, California, there has been much interest in our work with the energetic and biochemical terrain for cancer initiation, promotion and remission.
Even visiting the many fine alternative cancer treatment facilities in the Tijuana area, it was painfully obvious that there is a foundational understanding that is deficient on the clinic floor even at the best biological cancer institutions in the Western Hemisphere.
We found ourselves with the longest line of attendees waiting patiently for the opportunity to talk with their own bodies in the electromagnetic language of functional health and dis-ease.
How Can the Electromagnetic Spectrum Trigger & Promote Tumors?
Research by Russel J. Reiter, Ph.D., the world’s leading expert on the pineal gland now shows that suppression of the pineal’s secretion of melatonin is one of the mechanisms that can explain the link between electromagnetic fields and cancer (Reiter, RJ, et al. Melatonin Suppression by Static and Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: A Relationship to the Reported Increased Incidence of Cancer, Reviews in Environmental Health, 1994; 10 (3-4): 171-186).
Animal research now shows that both pulsed static geomagnetic fields and sinusoidal low frequency magnetic fields reduce the night time secretion of melatonin, the most powerful anti-cancer substance in the body.
The ubiquitous EMF produced by modern electronic technologies drives off the spirit minerals (ORMUS, BECs) from our food in food processing and cooking in electric appliances. These paramagnetic minerals are essential for conscious biocommunication and maintenance of normal cell structure, just as paramagnetic oxygen is essential for high energy immune and nerve communication functions on the biological side of the equation. Converting systems from 50 or 60 Hz mains power to 172 Hz might help reverse this process, turning our kitchens, homes, offices and manufacturing facilities into spiritual sanctuaries instead of the modern wastelands they are now. (See my page on 172 Hz for the background story on how I happened to rediscover this Dominant Harmonic Frequency of Nature, known and used in ancient China and Tibet resulting in 1000 years of peace…)
Exposure to light at night, except for the long wavelength red portion of the visible spectrum, also suppresses melatonin secretion. Use only deeply saturated red night lights or red filtered flashlights at night.
Endogenous Cancer Shield:
Melatonin has been shown to be a potent anti-cancer agent and antioxidant which prevents both the initiation and the promotion of cancer. Melatonin is a more potent antioxidant than both Vitamin C and Vitamin E. With less melatonin, cells are more vulnerable to damage from carcinogenic agents.
Melatonin is being used now as a supplement right before sleep to help with sleep disorders and jet lag. Research on preventing oxidation of LDL also holds promise for future applications. The best way to get melatonin, however, is to make your own by supporting your pineal gland.
Dr. Reiter, a prolific researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center, first learned of the possible connection between electromagnetic and geopathic stress with melatonin and cancer from Starfire’s founder, Dr. Glen Swartwout, when they were both on a speaking program together 7 years ago (Light, The New Science, Conference Sponsored by the College of Syntonic Optometry, held in Estes Park, Colorado, May 20-22, 1988).
One out of three (update, 2000: one out of two and still rising) Americans now gets cancer. Cancer is listed as the cause of 20% of all deaths, although most cancer patients usually die of either kidney or liver failure. Detoxification is the key to prevention, since a functioning body and healthy immune system can clean up the toxins that make a cell abnormal.
For the 30% of the population suffering from electromagnetic or geopathic stress, however, even the best detoxification programs do not work, until the radiation exposure is eliminated. A good way to rule out these factors is to test your sleeping, living and working areas several times with a Cell Sensor gauss meter, as well as having a Biofield Analysis test. Biocommunication is also the best way to identify the most biocompatible and effective natural therapies.
Once cancer has progressed enough to clinically diagnosible, it is often 10 years after tumor growth was initiated, and 20 years after cancer cells began to form in that tissue on a regular basis. The best strategy for dealing with cancer is obviously prevention.
Primary Prevention: Steering Clear of Cancer
Prevention is best begun before the development of cancer ‘terrain,’ which represents the biophysical conditions of blocked cellular metabolism that force normal cells to degenerate into dysplastic cells and ultimately into neoplastic, or cancer cells. Most Americans, however, have already produced cancer terrain in one or more organs by early adulthood, due to influences like refined foods, vaccination, allergy shots, chlorine, fluoride, antibiotics and other synthetic drugs and environmental toxins.
Secondary Prevention: Breaking the Causal Chains
At the second stage of prevention, where cancer terrain has already taken root, the immune system needs support to continue its job of identifying and cleaning out cancer cells as they form. At the same time, factors that can prevent or reduce the tendency to form cancer cells help by reducing the burden on the immune system.
These same cancer preventive factors may also help stimulate cellular metabolism, which the Nobel prize winning research of Dr. Otto Warburg showed can even cause a cancer cell to revert back to a normal cell, by burning off the toxins that block normal metabolic function.
Tertiary Prevention: Early Identification & Treatment
Cellular oxidative respiration becomes even more critical in the third stage of prevention, where cancer is growing, but as yet too small to be medically detectible, often representing tumors up to the size of a pea.
Cancer cells produce about 40 times more lactic acid than healthy cells, but this intracellular acidity is more than balanced by the lack of energy in cancer cells to pump out cations like Calcium and Sodium. The pH inside tumor cells is more alkaline than normal, a sludge with a pH about 7.1 to 7.2. (J Theoretical Biology 196: 237-50, 1999) The fluid in the surrounding area of the tumor is more acidic than normal at 6.5 to 6.8 pH. (Novartis Found Symposium 240: 46-62, 2001; Molecular Medicine Today 61: 15-19, 2000) Metastasis, the spread of tumors, appears to be accelerated when the lactic acid levels surrounding tumors are elevated. (Cancer Research 21: 4757-59, 1995) The systemic venous blood is more alkaline than normal when cancer is growing in the body, and an alkaline colon, normally slightly acidic, promotes cancer as well, yet Calcium (over 900-1068 mg/day) reduces colon cancer. (Cancer Causes Control 13: 213-20, 2002; Nutrition Cancer 41: 150-55, 2001)
Newer research shows that even a full blown cancer cell will not reproduce and form a tumor when grown in normal, clear, healthy connective tissue. This confirms the view in European Biological Medicine that it is the terrain that is the ultimate cause, and that cancer is not primarily a cellular disorder, but a systemic condition, showing up in already weakened and intoxicated tissue loci as tissue dysplasia and ultimately tumors.
Natural substances that have been studied and reported as potentially beneficial in the scientific literature include: (Werbach, MR. Nutritional Influences on Illness, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research, Tarzana, Calif.: Third Line Press, 1988; Werbach, MR and Murray, MT. Botanical Influences on Illness, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research, Tarzana, Calif.:Third Line Press, 1994)
Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALC)
Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)
Alpha lipoic acid
Benzaldehyde (in almond oil, figs, and amygdalin: Vitamin B17, also in homeopathic form with all 20 B vitamins in Stamina Plus)
Berberine (in Goldenseal, which is wild crafted but being over-harvested, as well as in Barberry and Oregon grape root, the source for Berberine capsules)
Beta Glucans (from mushrooms like maitake in Grifron-Pro D-Fraction, reishi in Ganoderma lucidum tincture, and specially grown shiitake micelium in Nouss-Ade, which also contains 5% ORMUS)
Bindweed (Convulvulus arvensis in Vascustatin)
Bromelain (from pineapple)
Calcium ions (alkaline microwater, MCHA Calcium/MCHC)
Carnivora (from venus fly trap, in Carnivora)
CellFood, Cell Renew or Cell Silver (oxygen catalyst: deuterium increases partial pressure of oxygen even in tissues with poor circulation)
Chlorella (broken cell wall algae)
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
Coumarin (from Dong Quai or Clover)
Curcumin (from Turmeric)
EPA slows down cancer cell growth
Essential Fatty Acids: Omega 3 and Omega 6 (in Borago officinalis Borage Oil, CLA, EPA/DHA, Primrose Oil, Pumpkin Seed Oil, Krill Oil, Hemp Seed Oil)
Fiber (Chitosan is a unique fat-soluble marine fiber based on an 800 year old oriental medicine from Japan; it removes cholesterol plaque by blocking bile salt recycling as well as binding chloride, thereby preventing blood pressure spiking with salt intake, heavy metals, petrochemicals, and radiation for removal in the gut)
Folic acid (Vitamin B7); Folacin affects DNA expression
Fruits and Vegetables; crucifers and dark green leafy vegetables are anti-tumor foods; jackfruit seeds and fruit.
Garlic and Onion (source of Allicin, in Allium sativa Garlic and Food Tolerance); garlic is an anti-tumor food
Germanium enhances cellular oxygenation
Graviola (Annona muricata)
Green tea polyphenols (water process decaffeinated)
Iodine (standardized dose in Kelp has advantages of thyroid supportive effects of the Kelp)
Lactobacillus acidophilus (in Friendly Flora and Colostrum); Live culture yogurt is an anti-tumor food.
Magnesium (Magnesium Glycinate is best absorbed for systemic deficiency, our culture’s most common macro-mineral deficiency due to soil depletion from lack of manure in commercial agriculture; Magnesium Malate for liver and muscles; Magnesium Taurate for heart and retina)
Mistletoe (Viscum album)
Panax ginseng (Panax quinquifolia; American Ginseng is a more balanced yin form)
Pau D’Arco (Tabebuia avellanedae: Taheebo, La Pacho)
Phytosterols (mostly from sprouting seeds: affect DNA expression; seed and sprout foods have anti-tumor properties; high concentration in Sterol Max). These are the most important nutrients in oils, which for purposes of a ‘clean’ looking clear oil to facilitate sales in commerce, have been filtered out of almost all oils. Unfiltered Flax oil is now available at health food stores.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6, active phosphorylated coenzyme form is Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate: P5P)
Seaweed (e.g. Undaria pinnantifida) (varieties of marine vegetation are found in Star Gold, One Step, Kelp, Blue-Green Algae and all Quantum Quality Control homeopathic products as part of the unique QQC process). Spirulina with vitamin E and canthaxanthin (a carotenoid) reversed cancer in an animal study. Seaweeds are anti-tumor foods.
Selenium (bioavailable as L-Selenomethionine) slows down cancer cell growth
Solasodine glycosides (from the Solanum, or Nightshade family) (Solanum species in One Step, Food Tolerance and Stamina Plus); these anti-tumor foods include tomatoes (source of Lycopene) and black pepper (source of Bioperine).
Trimethylglycine (TMG) methylates DNA for protection against oxidative damage (pure TMG Powder)
Ukrain (derived from the herb Greater Celandine: Chelidonium majus; approved in other countries, but FDA refused to allow human clinical trials in America because they have no bureaucratic mechanism to evaluate or register non-toxic therapies!)
Vitamin A affects DNA expression
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin or Dibencozide)
Vitamin C (alkaline Magnesium Ascorbate, quadruple intracellular effect Ester-C, or fat soluble Ascorbyl Palmitate)
Vitamin D (best maintained using full spectrum Ott lights indoors and moderate sun exposure outdoors, but replete with high dose D3 up to 50,000 IU in one day for anti-viral effects) affects DNA expression
Vitamin E (Unique E is the most therapeutic and only unaltered, undiluted form)
Vitamin K3 (produced by symbionts in balanced blood terrain)
Zinc (picolinate and monomethionine forms are well absorbed; should incorporate a small balancing amount of Copper for long term use of higher doses)
You could take all of the supplements listed above, but some would be more effective for you than others. Others might not be well tolerated by your body at this time. Some might be nutritive and supportive, but not critically therapeutic right now. Some might be more productive to take at a different stage in your healing process.
Theoretically, there is no way to tell what you should take. Fortunately, God designed your body as a practical, self-healing vessel, which continuously identifies priorities for preventive maintenance and repair. Several of the most crucial projects are selected as active priorities, and body environment signals are processed and responded to according to those priority needs. Such needs can range from substitution for a missing function (e.g. thyroxin for a surgically removed or radiation destroyed thyroid, or a parasite cleanse to evict inner space invaders when the immune system cannot) to supportive and nutritive herbs and supplements, to stimulatory therapies like homeopathy and color therapy for the gentle reactivation of dormant body functions.
It is also important to avoid:
Air pollution (use Oxozone units to reduce exposure)
Alcohol (be sure to drink Microwater when exposed)
Cadmium toxicity (take extra zinc, as listed above; avoid cigarette smoke with Oxozone air purification)
Chlorine and Fluoride in unfiltered drinking, cooking or bathing water (use a shower filter, water filtration and Microwater ionizers)
Commercial eggs and produce
Electromagnetic and geopathic stress (check with Cell Sensor gauss meter and Biofield Analysis testing)
Excess dietary phosphorus (often from soda, excess meats, peanuts, and wheat)
Fat: cholesterol, fried foods, hydrogenated oils, oleic acid (in vegetable oils)
Obesity (use Weight Less, Chitosan, Chromium, CLA)
Radon, x-ray and other radiation exposure exposure (e.g. frequent flying)
Short wavelength UV light in excess (e.g. sunburns) (get plenty of Beta Carotene, as in Star Gold, One Step or Beta Carotene, and Maxogenol for protection)
Smoked, pickled and salt-cured foods (take extra Ester-C Complex and Maxogenol when exposed)
Sugar, refined and processed foods (take extra GTF Chromium when exposed; also consider Chitosan to absorb rich foods and Weight Less to prevent turning sugars into fat)
Tobacco smoke (if exposed use homeopathic Tabacum as in Aller-Free to stimulate more efficient detoxification; if still trying to quit use Smoke Free herbal nicotine detox program as well)
If undergoing conventional cancer therapy, it is especially important to provide optimum nutritional support, since it is estimated that 40% of cancer patients actually die of malnutrition.
Radiation and Chemo:
Patients also respond better to radiation therapy when they are on a better diet. Specific nutrients to emphasize before and during radiation and/or chemotherapy include:
Beta carotene helps prevent mouth sores and may be directly toxic to tumor cells.
Beta 1,6 glucan from maitake mushrooms showed 80% tumor shrinkage compared to 30% with chemotherapy (mitomycin-C, or MMC). Together, 98% shrinkage was achieved. Maitake also alleviates chemotherapy symptoms like nausea, hair loss and immunosuppression in 90% of patients. Pain is reduced in 83% of cases.
Dark green leafy vegetables protect against radiation damage.
Fulvic & Humic acids (maintain 85% immune function through radiation and chemotherapy.
Germanium helps reduce symptoms during and after radiation.
Vitamin E (1600 IU/day for 1 week prior to chemo or radiation allows 69% of patients to keep their hair) (67% of patients with mouth sores improved on topical vitamin E in 5 days compared to 11% on placebo). Unique E is the only undiluted whole vitamin E complex on the market.
Medical treatment is America’s biggest business, representing over 15% of the entire nation’s Gross National Product. Over $1 trillion a year is spent on medical treatment in America with over $100 billion of this for cancer. The average cost of cancer treatment is over $100,000 per person. This year over 1.5 million Americans will develop cancer, and over 600, 000 of them will die.
The GAO (General Accounting Office of the United States Government) states in numerous reports that in spite of increasing use of chemotherapy they cannot find any statistical data that suggests it has any effectiveness in prolonging life.
The New England Journal of Medicine reports, War on cancer is a failure: Despite $30 billion spent on research since 1970, the cancer death rate is higher than when they started. The failure of chemotherapy to control cancer has become apparent even to the oncology establishment.
According to the PDR (Physicians Desk Reference), the top 10 chemotherapy drugs used in the USA all list CANCER AS A SIDE EFFECT to using them. In fact, statiscally, more cancer patients die from chemotherapy treatment than of the cancer. Alan C. Nixon, PhD, past president of the American Chemical Society, wrote, “As a chemist trained to interpret data, it is incomprehensible to me that physicians can ignore the clear evidence that chemotherapy does much, much more harm than good.”
The Los Angeles Times reported that over 75% of the oncologists polled said that if they had cancer they would never use the same chemotherapy they prescribe for their patients on themselves because of the ineffectiveness of chemotherapy and its unacceptable degree of toxicity.
In 1990 $3.53 billion was spent on chemotherapy and by 1994 that figure had more than doubled to $7.51 billion. Why the growth in chemotherapy in the face of such failure? Even the Federal Government has launched studies into this suggesting possible corruption.
A look at the financial interrelationships between large cancer centers, for instance Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (considered the finest cancer research center in the world) and the companies that make billions manufacturing and selling chemotherapy drugs is revealing.
James Robinson III, Chairman of the MSKCC Board of Overseers and Managers, is also a director of Bristol-Myers Squibb, the world’s largest producer of chemotherapy drugs.
Richard Gelb, Vice-Chairman of the MSKCC board, is Bristol-Myers Chairman of the Board.
Richard Furlaud, another MSKCC board member, recently retired as Bristol-Myers’ president.
Paul Marks MD, MSKCC’s President and CEO, is a director of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals.
John S. Reed, also a chairman at MSKCC, is also the director of Phillip Morris Tobacco Company.
Metastatic cancer kills most people who die of cancer. There has been virtually no change in survival from metastatic cancer over the last 50 years. Apparent improvement in survival figures has been due to earlier detection of illness: people appear to live longer, but in fact have just known the diagnosis longer before metastasis kills them. Apparent improvement in cancer survival is a statistical artifact.
Sophisticated screening and early detection tests have also diagnosed many patients who have conditions that are not life-threatening (for example, some very early precancerous or encapsulated lesions of the breast or prostate). These people are often labeled as cancer patients, weighting statistics appear that people with cancer are living longer. Many of these people would not have died of cancer even if their tumors had not been detected and some of those who died of treatment would have lived.
University of Pennsylvania learned that pediatric leukemia patients whose treatment included head irradiation (as it usually did) later suffered significant drops in their IQ. The practice of routinely irradiating the brains of such patients went on for years, but has now largely been abandoned.
Children with Hodgkins’ lymphoma have 18 times greater risk of developing other cancers, due to radiation treatments.
Radiation and inflammation that many chemotherapies cause, breaks down the blood-brain barrier, that was thought to protect the brain from damage by chemotherapy agents. “Chemo-brain,” a condition discovered and named by patients, is a highly distressing loss of memory and other cognitive functions often experienced by patients undergoing chemotherapy. Psychiatrists at Sloan-Kettering Institute, for instance, have found that cancer and its aggressive treatment cause serious depression in 15 to 25 percent of cancer patients. “The depression itself can often be worse than the disease….”
American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. Retrieved April 4, 2004
Healy, Bernadine. Yes, I am still here! (On Health column), US News and World Report, April 5, 2004, p. 68.
Szegedy-Maszak, Marianne and Hobson, Katherine. Beating a killer. US News and World Report, April 5, 2004, pp. 56-67. Retrieved April 5, 2004
A nurse who works in medical research said to me, “It’s so simple. I don’t know why I never thought of it. When we’re working with cell cultures in the lab, if we want cells to mutate, we turn down the oxygen. To stop them, we turn the oxygen back up.”
“Lack of cellular oxygen supply is probably the most common cause of cell injury and may also be the ultimate mechanism of damage.”
-Robbins and Cotran (W.B. Saunders) Pathologic Basis of Disease.
“Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes, but there is only one prime cause. The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the normal oxygen respiration of body cells by an anaerobic cell respiration.”
– Dr. Otto Warburg, Nobel Laureate.
“Since Warburg’s discovery, this difference in respiration has remained the most fundamental (and some say, only) physiological difference consistently found between normal and cancer cells. Using cell culture studies, I decided to examine the differential responses of normal and cancer cells to changes in the oxygen environment. The results that I found were rather remarkable. I found that high 02 tensions were lethal to cancer tissue, 95 percent being very toxic, where as in general, normal tissues were not harmed by high oxygen tensions. Indeed, some normal tissues were found to require high 02 tensions. It does seem to demonstrate the possibility that if the 02 tensions in cancer tissues can be elevated, then the cancer tissue may be able to be killed selectively, as it seems that the cancer cells are incapable of handling a high 02 environment.”
– J.B. Kizer: Biochemist/Physicist, Gungnir Research, Portsmith, Ohio.
Preferred oxygen therapies include:
CellFood, Cell Renew, or Cell Silver (oral catalyst concentrate)
OxyMag (oral powder) or OXY-OXC (capsules)
Ozonated olive oil (topical ozone salve)
Ozone (insufflation or blood)
A key mitochondrial antioxidant produced naturally in the body which can be taken in supplemental form is coenzyme Q10. CoQ10 is essential for the transport of electrons inside the mitochondria. [Clin Investig 71: S55-9, 1993] CoQ10 increases mitochondrial respiration and production of ATP cell energy. [Cell Mol Biol 43:741-9, 1997]
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA may lead to reduced ATP energy levels in living cells which can sometimes be corrected with supplemental coenzyme Q10. [Ann Clin Lab Sci 31:25-67, 2001]
When living cells are deprived of oxygen, as seen in tumor cells (called hypoxia), then ATP cell energy levels decline rapidly. The provision of supplemental CoQ10 has been shown to facilitate resynthesis of ATP in functionally impaired mitochondria. [Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 287: 96-108, 1987; Surgery 91:631-7, 1982]
A deficiency of coenzyme Q10 has been described in aging, cancer and when statin cholesterol-lowering drugs are employed. [J Am Coll Nutr 20: 591-98, 2001]
For example, CoQ10 levels in tissue of breast cancer patients are significantly decreased compared to surrounding tissues. [Clin Biochem 33: 279-84, 2000] Breast cancer patients are more likely to exhibit low CoQ10 levels than healthy people. [Biochem Biophys Rres Commun 234: 296-99, 1997]
The provision of supplemental CoQ10 (390 mg) to breast cancer patients has been shown to induce complete regression in some cases. [Biochem Biophys Res Comm 199: 1504-08, 1994; 212: 172-77, 1995] Though only a small group study, the provision of an array of antioxidant supplements including coenzyme Q10 to high risk breast cancer patients has been demonstrated to be beneficial in reducing mortality, spread of cancer and quality of life. [Mol Aspects Med 15: 231-40S, 1994]
Statin cholesterol-lowering drugs are known to deplete the body of coenzyme Q10. Thus, it would be of interest to investigate whether cancer rates are higher among statin drug users. Surprisingly, some studies champion statin drugs as novel anti-cancer agents. [Clin Cancer Res 7:2067-75, 2001] Over a five-year period, one study did not confirm any association between statin drugs and the risk of cancer. [Am J Med 15;110: 716-23, 2001] But other disturbing studies do confirm a relationship between statin drug use and breast and prostate cancer. [Epidemiology 13: 262-67, 2002] More studies are underway.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine may have synergistic effects as it helps stimulate mitochondrial respiration of fatty acids, like co-Q10. Other synergists may include alpha lipoic acid, selenium, IP6 rice bran extract, and vitamins C, D and E.
PQQ, which stands for PyrroloQuinoline Quinone, is another member of the quinone family along with CoQ10 (Ubiquinone). It is the first supplement found to actually stimulate mitochondrial regeneration.
Hope for Skin Cancer:
A first level of skin care is good hygiene, using High Performance Hygiene soap, Acid Microwater and MSM Lotion. Early and small skin lesions often clear up with a primary prevention approach.
Tougher problem skin areas may respond to daily application of ozonated olive oil. When even deeper cleansing and immune activation is required, the following protocol has been a real God-send.
An exciting development in biological medicine is a natural, non-toxic escharotic skin ointment (Cansema) which destroys only cancerous and precancerous cells. Normal tissue becomes only slightly reddened temporarily by a 24-hour application.
Directions: Cover the area with at least 1/16” thickness of the ointment, with a little extra area covered in all directions beyond the visible skin changes. Then cover the ointment with a bandaid, leaving it on for only 24 hours. When removing the bandaid after 24 hours, wash off the ointment with water (acid water if available) and note whether the area is red (normal tissue) or anything from whitish-yellow to black (abnormal tissue). If the tissue is whitish-yellow or black, continue as follows. Cover the area with vaseline (or unpetroleum jelly) at least 1/8” thick 24 hours a day for 10 days. Between days 7 to 14 watch for formation of an eschar, or ball of tissue, which may fall out on its own, or may be gently plucked out when all attachments to the body are gone. Then switch to Vitamin A&E liquid (or A & E Mulsion, or open capsules of Vitamin A and Unique E) for the next 2 to 4 weeks, keeping the area covered 24 hours a day to help promote normal tissue regeneration without scarring.
Note: If Cansema is not available, another escharotic or black salve can be substituted, usually containing Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot). Zinc chloride may also be used.